Ron Guth: 1819 Large Cents are found with either a Large Date or a Small Date (the difference is quite apparent). One of the Large Date varieties is Newcomb 1. Because Newcomb 1 shows a clear 9 over 8, it is known not as an 1819 Large Date but as the 1819 Overdate. Newcomb 2 is also an overdate, but the undertype is weak and only visible on early did states. Hence, Newcomb 2 is known as the 1819/(8) Large Date (the 8 in parentheses indicates that the undertype is not always evident). All other Newcomb varieties for the year are Small Dates.
The 1819/(8) Large Date is also a repunched date. The 8 of the date consists of a small "Block 8" punched over a larger, old-style "Script 8" (expand any of the images above and look at 8 of the date to see precisely what is being described).
In terms of condition, the 1819/(8) Large Date Large Cent is fairly common in Mint State, with a nice cluster of coins at the MS-62 to MS-63 levels. However, these numbers are deceptive because most of these coins came from collections that were graded and sold within the past few years, Most of the coins went back into collectors' hands and are effectively off the market. Red-Brown examples of this major variety can be found, but full Red examples, though they exist, are exceedingly rare.
Relative to the other major varieties of the year (1819/8 and Small Date), the 1819/(8) Large Date Large Cent is the most common of the three by a small margin.